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by Tanja Tuulikki Välisalo last modified Dec 05, 2022 07:36 PM


circle of data collection methods

Data Collection Existing Materials Self-Produced Materials Total Research Sampling Purposive Sampling Archives and Collections Observations Narrativies Interviews Questionnares Experiments Follow-up Study


A questionnaire is a data collection method, in which you present a pattern of questions to a selected group of people. You can conduct a questionnaire in various ways. The aim of your research will affect the wisdom of conducting the questionnaire, the contents of the questions, and the method for selection of the respondents. Several factors in designing and conducting the questionnaire may influence the responses, in how informative they are, the response rate and the overall validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Questionnaire research requires you to find and solve any problems in a pilot format before carrying out the final questionnaire survey to collect the data. The way you formulate the questionnaire influences whether or not you can use quantitative methods of analysis or qualitative methods of analysis.

Read more on questionnaires from the links below:

Trochim, William M., 2006. Survey Research. The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 2nd Edition.

Barribeau, Paul, Butler, Bonnie, Corney, Jeff, Doney, Megan, Gault, Jennifer, Gordon, Jane, Fetzer, Randy, Klein, Allyson, Ackerson Rogers, Cathy, Stein, Irene F., Steiner, Carroll, Urschel, Heather, Waggoner, Theresa ja Palmquist, Mike, 2005. Survey Research. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University Department of English.

Survey Design, 2009. Creative Research Systems.

Leung, Wai-Ching, 2001. How to design a questionnaire. Student BMJ, June 2001.

Routio, Pentti, 2007. The Questionnaire. Arteology, the science of products and professions. The Aalto University School of Art and Design.

Get to know research examples based on data collected through questionaires.

Sulkunen, Sari, 2007. Text Authenticity in International Reading Literacy Assessment. Focusing on PISA 2000. Jyväskylä Studies in Humanities 76. University of Jyväskylä. (pdf)