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Citing and managing references

tekijä: halttune — Viimeisin muutos tiistai 22. helmikuuta 2022, 13.04

One characteristic of scholarly texts is that they always name the original source when citing someone else’s text, images, etc. In addition, they include a full list of references or a bibliography which is usually located at the end of the document.

Why to Cite?

Research ethics require that you cite the sources you use when writing your paper. By citing your sources you differentiate your own ideas from the ideas of others. Citing your sources correctly also helps you avoid plagiarism.

A bibliography has several purposes:

  • Readers can quickly see, what kind of sources have been used.
  • Readers can identify and find the cited document.
  • It is possible to verify whether the source really exists.
How to Cite?

Whenever you quote, paraphrase or summarize someone else’s work you have to mention the source both

  • in the text (in-text citation)
  • in the bibliography at the end of the paper

There are many different models and styles of citing both printed and electronic sources. This is why there is no definitive guide for how to cite. Check with your supervisor what practice is used in your department.

Examples of in-text citations and bibliographical information in APA and Chicago styles.

Exception: source information and reference in text are not needed if the matter is a generally known fact (e.g. Finland became independent in 1917). This is coursebook information which varies between disciplines.

Further information on citing:

    Reference management software / Zotero

    Using reference management software helps you with your in-text citations and bibliographies. University of Jyväskylä offers support for Zotero, a free reference manager.

    Zotero allows you to save your references for later use in your own personal database and generate citations and bibliographies in a variety of styles and formats. With Zotero, you can do all this with just a few clicks of a button, so that you’ll have more time to concentrate on your research.

    Other reference management software also exist. Another popular and free one is Mendeley.

    In-text citations

    Parenthetical citations within the text usually include only the name of the author, the year of publication and possibly the page number,

    for example, (Boyle 2004, p. 45) or (Duesterhaus et al. 2011).

    “Et al.” means “and the others” and may be used if there are three or more authors, depending on the output style.

    Examples in APA and Chicago styles: How to Cite.

    Citations within the text refer to the list of references which includes full bibliographic information about the document. Every textual citation has to match fully with the information given in the list of references.


    Information in the bibliography has to be detailed enough so that the reader is able to find the referred document.

    • A reference to a book should include title, author, year of publication, place of publication and publisher.

    For example, Boyle, G. 2004, Renewable energy, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.

    • A reference to an article should include title, author, name of journal or a compiled work, year, issue and pages.

    For example, Duesterhaus, M., Grauerholz, L., Weichsel, R. & Guittar, N. 2011, "The Cost of Doing Femininity: Gendered Disparities in Pricing of Personal Care Products and Services", Gender Issues, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 175-191.

    There are lots of different output styles for citing, and different disciplines have varying citation practices. Most often the list of references is located at the end of the document, but can also be footnoted on pages. Check with your teacher or supervisor what is the output style used in your department.

    Examples in APA and Chicago styles: How to Cite.

    If you are using electronic sources on the web such as a web page, you should also mention the web address and the date you last accessed the source.

    Digital sources

    When your source is digital, you usually need to give the web address in the bibliography. Use a permanent address, such as DOI, URN or permalink. If the site doesn't have any of these, it might not be a reliable site to use in your academic work.

    An example: MOT Dictionaries
    In the bibliography, include the name of the dictionary you used in MOT (eg. MOT Collins Compact Thesaurus) and the publisher (Kielikone Oy). Also include the word you searched, the date of your search and a link to the dictionary.



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