How to Cite

tekijä: Liisa Hannele Halttunen-Keyriläinen Viimeisin muutos tiistai 22. helmikuuta 2022, 13.06

Whenever you quote, paraphrase or summarize someone else’s work you have to mention the source both

  • in the text (in-text citation)
  • in the bibliography at the end of the paper

There are many different models and styles of citing both printed and electronic sources. This is why there is no definitive guide for how to cite. Check with your supervisor what practice is used in your department. A citation usually includes at least the author(s), date of publication and pages. Most importantly: be systematic!

The styles used in the examples are APA 7th and Chicago 16th. More:



Citation and bibliography examples

Book with 1–2 authors

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Kaukua, J. (2015). Self-awareness in Islamic philosophy: Avicenna and beyond. Cambridge University Press.

Tenhunen, S., & Säävälä, M. (2012). Introduction to India: Culture, politics and development. Anthem Press.

E-books in reference lists and bibliographies are usually cited exactly as printed books. If the e-book has a doi, add it to the reference.

(Kaukua, 2015)

(Tenhunen & Säävälä, 2012, p. 147)

Add page numbers if citing a specific part of the source. You can also cite specific chapters, tables etc.


Kaukua, Jari. 2015. Self-Awareness in Islamic Philosophy: Avicenna and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tenhunen, Sirpa, and Minna Säävälä. 2012. Introduction to India: Culture, Politics and Development. London: Anthem Press.

(Kaukua 2015, 57–58)

(Tenhunen and Säävälä 2012, 147)

Source material (e.g. a book) with multiple authors


Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

3-20 authors (list all the authors):

Swarr, T., Hunkeler, D., Klöppfer, W., Pesonen, H.-L., Ciroth, A., Brent, A., & Pagan, R. (2011). Environmental life-cycle costing: A code of practice. SETAC Press.

21+ authors (list 19 authors from the start and the last one):

Viskari, J., Kokko, J., Torpo, L., Kunelius, A.-S., Santtila, M., Kyröläinen, H., llomäki, J., Luomi, A. M., Kivelä, J., Lipponen, H., Hyyppä, O., Välimetsä, P., Huhtala, P., Suihkonen, M., Puustinen, J., Kurkela, M., Nykänen, T., Räsänen, S., lsola, V., . . . Pihlainen, K. (2015). Liikuntakoulutuksen käsikirja 2015. Pääesikunta, Koulutusosasto.

(Swarr et al., 2011, s. 64)

(Viskari et al., 2015, s.1718)

List only the first author, unless it creates the same citation for multiple sources. In that case, list as many authors as needed to avoid ambiguity.



3 authors:

Alasuutari, Maarit, Ann-Marie Markström, and Ann-Christine Vallberg-Roth. 2014. Assessment and Documentation in Early Childhood Education. Abingdon: Routledge.

4+ authors:

Swarr, Thomas, David Hunkeler, Walter Klöppfer, Hanna-Leena Pesonen, Andreas Ciroth, Alan Brent, and Robert Pagan. 2011. Environmental Life-Cycle Costing: A Code of Practice. Pensacola: SETAC Press.

3 authors:

(Alasuutari, Markström and Vallberg-Roth 2014, 89–90)

4+ authors:

(Swarr et al. 2011, 64)

Revised editions, translated books

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Atkins, P., & de Paula, J. (2014). Atkins' physical chemistry (10th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Bourdieu, P. (2011). On television (P. Parkhurst Ferguson, Trans.). Polity. (Original work published 1996)

(Atkins & de Paula, 2014, Chapter 3)

(Bourdieu, 1996/2011, pp. 34–35)


Atkins, Peter, and Julio de Paula. 2014. Atkins' Physical Chemistry. 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 2011. On Television. Translated by Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson. Cambridge: Polity.

(Atkins & de Paula 2014, 230)

(Bourdieu 2011, 34–35)

Edited book

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text
APA Mikkonen, S., & Suutari, P. (Eds.). (2016). Music, art and diplomacy: East-West cultural interactions and the Cold War. Ashgate. (Mikkonen & Suutari, 2016)
Chicago Mikkonen, Simo, and Pekka Suutari, eds. 2016. Music, Art and Diplomacy: East-West Cultural Interactions and the Cold War. Farnham: Ashgate. (Mikkonen and Suutari 2016, 6)

Chapter in an edited book

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text
APA Kärnä, E. (2015). Implementing strategy means changes for employees. In F. E. P. Dievernich, K. O. Tokarski, & J. Gong (Eds.), Change management and the human factor: Advances, challenges and contradictions in organizational development (pp. 109–127). Springer International Publishing. (Kärnä, 2015)
Chicago Kärnä, Eija. 2015. "Implementing Strategy Means Changes for Employees." In Change Management and the Human Factor: Advances, Challenges and Contradictions in Organizational Development, edited by Frank E. P. Dievernich, Kim Oliver Tokarski, and Jie Gong, 109–27. Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-07434-4_8. (Kärnä 2015, 116)

Journal article

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Virtanen, A. (2016). Insights into the agency, positioning and development of professional Finnish language skills of international nursing students. Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, 10(2), 63–81.

Carlson, E., Wilson, J., Baltazar, M., Duman, D., Peltola, H.-R., Toiviainen, P., & Saarikallio, S. (2021). The role of music in everyday life during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic: A mixed-methods exploratory study. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 647756.

Croucher, S., & Kramer, E. (2016). Cultural fusion theory : An alternative to acculturation. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication. Advance online publication.

(Virtanen, 2016)

(Carlson et al., 2021)

(Croucher & Kramer, 2016)


Virtanen, Aija. 2016. "Insights into the Agency, Positioning and Development of Professional Finnish Language Skills of International Nursing Students." Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies 10 (2): 63–81.

Carlson, Emily, Johanna Wilson, Margarida Baltazar, Deniz Duman, Henna-Riikka Peltola, Petri Toiviainen, and Suvi Saarikallio. 2021. ”The Role of Music in Everyday Life During the First Wave of the Coronavirus Pandemic: A Mixed-Methods Exploratory Study”. Frontiers in Psychology 12: 647756. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647756.

Croucher, Stephen, and Eric Kramer. 2016. "Cultural Fusion Theory : An Alternative to Acculturation." Journal of International and Intercultural Communication. Published electronically September 7. doi:10.1080/17513057.2016.1229498.

(Virtanen 2016, 67)

(Carlson et al. 2021)

(Croucher and Kramer 2016, 3)

Magazine or newspaper article

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Dobbs, D. (2016, September). A cure in sight. National Geographic, 230(3), 30–53.

Brulliard, K. (2016, September 7). Breaking North American birdwatching’s toughest record. The Washington Post, A3.

(Dobbs, 2016)

(Brulliard, 2016)


Dobbs, David. 2016. "A Cure in Sight." National Geographic, September, 30–53.

Brulliard, Karin. 2016. "Breaking North American Birdwatching’s Toughest Record." The Washington Post, September 7, A3.

(Dobbs 2016, 35)

(Brulliard 2016)

Book review, movie review etc. in a journal or a magazine

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Arentshorst, H. (2015). Review of the book Freedom’s right. The social foundations of democratic life, by A. Honneth, trans. J. Ganahl. Journal of Social Ontology 1(1), 167–170.

Salokas, T.-P. (2021). Ainutlaatuinen esitys antiikin Rooman satamakaupungista. [Review of the book Ostia, portti Roomaan, by A. Karivieri & M. Meriluoto, Eds.]. Historiallinen aikakauskirja, 119(1), 120–121.

(Arentshorst, 2015)

(Salokas, 2021)

Chicago Arentshorst, Hans. 2015. Review of Freedom’s Right. The Social Foundations of Democratic Life, by Axel Honneth, trans. Joseph Ganahl. Journal of Social Ontology 1(1): 167–70. doi:10.1515/jso-2014-0049. (Arentshorst 2015)

Thesis or dissertation

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Savolainen, P. (2001). Finding a right way to communicate: Evaluation of communication practices in a multicultural project [Master's thesis, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

(Savolainen, 2001, pp. 32–33)

Savolainen, Pinja. 2001. "Finding a Right Way to Communicate: Evaluation of Communication Practices in a Multicultural Project." Master's thesis, University of Jyväskylä.

(Savolainen 2001, 32–33)


Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

European Social Survey, & Ervasti, H. (2015). European social survey 2014: Finnish data (Version 1.0) [Dataset]. Finnish Social Science Data Archive.

(European Social Survey & Ervasti, 2015)
Chicago European Social Survey, and Heikki Ervasti. 2015. "European Social Survey 2014: Finnish Data." Version 1.0, November 17. Finnish Social Science Data Archive. (European Social Survey and Ervasti 2015)

Website with an group author / without an author

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Google. (2021, July 1). Google privacy policy.

Apple tax: Irish cabinet to appeal EU Commission ruling. (2016, September 2). BBC News.

(Google, 2021)

(Apple tax, 2016)


Google. 2016. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified August 29.

"Apple Tax: Irish Cabinet to Appeal EU Commission Ruling." 2016., September 2. Accessed September 4, 2016.

(Google 2016)

("Apple tax" 2016)

 Youtube videos

Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text

Sloan, B., & Pelling, J. [Don't Hug me I'm Scared]. (2016, June 19). Don't hug me I'm scared 6 [Video]. YouTube. 

ProQuestRefworks. (2013, January 8). RefWorks Write-N-Cite 4: Installing & logging in [Video]. YouTube.

(Sloan & Pelling, 2016)

(ProQuestRefworks, 2013)


Sloan, Becky, and Joseph Pelling. 2016. Don't Hug Me I'm Scared 6. YouTube video, 7:59, June 19.

ProQuestRefworks. 2013. "RefWorks Write-N-Cite 4: Installing & Logging In." YouTube video, 2:07, January 8.

(Sloan and Pelling 2016)

(ProQuestRefworks 2013)


Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text
APA Häkkinen, T. (2016, January 20). Parliament and the Gulf War in 1991. The History of Parliament. (Häkkinen, 2016)

If you cite a blog frequently, you can add it to your bibliography:

The History of Parliament (blog).


Häkkinen, Teemu. 2016. "Parliament and the Gulf War in 1991." The History of Parliament (blog), January 20.

Cite in running text ('In "Parliament and the Gulf War in 1991", an entry posted to The History of Parliament -blog on January 20, 2016, . . .')


(Häkkinen 2016)



Citation styleBibliographyCitation in text
APA Colbert, S. [@StephenAtHome]. (2016, April 28). Who is David Tennant? Yes. And vice versa. #LSSC. VIDEO: [Tweet]. Twitter. (Colbert, 2016)

If you cite a Twitter-stream frequently, you can add it to your bibliography:

Colbert, Stephen. @StephenAtHome. Twitter.

Cite in running text ('In a tweet posted to @StephenAtHome on April 28, 2016, . . .')
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